The search terms were first used in Google Scholar. Studies which matched the search parameters were then downloaded for future scrutiny. A more specific search for reputable databases like Cochrane, Medline, BMJ, ANA, PubMed, and similar databases was also conducted. Studies matching the search parameters were also downloaded for future evaluation. Researches included for further analysis and evaluation for this research included those which were not more than six years old, which were peer-reviewed and published in reputable journals. Articles which underwent the logical and reliable research processes were included in this study. Moreover, identified materials were further evaluated based on their relevance to the question being raised by this paper. Materials which were older than six years and which did not help to answer the questions raised by this report were eliminated and were not included this paper. Studies which were not peer-reviewed and which were not published in reputable journal publications were also not included in this literature review. Brustia, et.al., (2007) conducted their study based on the premise that the use of fast-tracking multidisciplinary programs would lead to good results in the postoperative outcomes in various surgeries. The authors assessed a multimodal clinical program on noninvasive surgery, epidural anesthesia and early mobilization and feeding among abdominal aortic surgeries. Their study was conducted from June 2000 to October 2005, covering 323 patients who underwent abdominal aortic surgery for conditions related to atherosclerotic aortoiliac occlusive disease and aortoiliac aneurysm (Brustia, et.al., 2007). Sensory block was achieved through the incorporation of bupivacaine 0.5% via the epidural catheter at T6-T7 interspace. Light anesthesia was also used via sevoflurane through the laryngeal mask in spontaneous breathing. Nasogastric tubes were not used during surgery (Brustia, et.al., 2007).

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