The landscape is generally flat or gently undulating between 30 and 50 metres above sea level. The area to the west, the Western Woodland Farmlands, in contrast has a flatter landscape and fewer woodlands.Open landscape with trees in distant spots is the major characteristic due to removal of internal field boundaries in order to support arable usage. There is however some remaining mixed woodlands around the edge of the Hall Place estate. The pattern of cultivation now gives a bright green landscape in spring compared with the more subtle colours of the old traditional pastures. As usual, road and rail transport routes cut across this landscape.The minimum temperature ranges from 1.3 to 12.2oC where as maximum temperature ranges from 7.1 to 21.6oC. This reflects that the climate is temperate type. The average annual rainfall recorded was 728 mm (average of 30 years).Compared to the averages for England as a whole, this part of Kent has warmer days (both max and min temperatures higher by over 0.5 of a degree), 6 fewer days of air frost, about 10% more hours of sunshine and about 15% less rainfall. All of these factors combine to produce a climate reflected in Kent’s nickname of “the Garden of England”.The two fields are approximately 35 metres above sea level, rising to the north-west and falling to the south-east (as depicted in the following contour map). There is a spot height of 36 metres at the north-east edge of the Loys field.As the permeability is found to be slow, seasonally waterlogged soils over impermeable clay substrates with no storage capacity are common feature in this ecosystem. However, in some patches, freely draining permeable soils in unconsolidated loams or clays with groundwater at less that 2m from the surface are also present.This implies that, for the Loys field (and part of the Ragfield field), seasonal water logging occurs and is a

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