Hence, such influence may impact on the development of Muslim communities and practices. Post 9/11, however, such influence has metamorphosed to interference even in religious and social organizations and institutions so much so that the Muslim communities in these states feel discriminated not only due to the differences in treatment as against the majority community but also as against treatment meted out to other minority groups such as the Sikhs and the Jews.
Anti-terror legislations give law enforcement agencies sweeping powers to inspect individuals, organizations and institutions making members of the Muslim community feel insecure and marginalized. Coupled with other interference in cultural practices such as the wearing of hijab by Muslim school girls, the heat of the state’s interferences in their exclusive domain has alienated the community to an extent where it has become difficult to gauge the feelings and intentions of a patriot from a paranoid (Jocelyne Cesari, p65).
In a climate dominated by fears of international Islamic terrorism, an oscillation in French public policy between including the diversity of Muslims and favoring specific tendencies has shaped the state organization of Islam (Jocelyne Cesari, p73).
Also, different countries in Europe have different opinion and attitudes on Islam. …
Also, different countries in Europe have different opinion and attitudes on Islam. Germany, Britain, and Spain recognize Islam. But some countries like France do not recognize Islam and do not have any Islamic institutions like school in their country. On the whole, the attitude is one of disapproval and discouragement where Islam is concerned.
One study conducted by Cornell University in 2004 revealed that 44 percent of Americans surveyed were not opposed to the restriction of certain basic civil liberties in the case of Muslims (Jocelyne Cesari, ch3).
Muslim communities, in particular, are currently subject to unprecedented levels of intervention and regulation by the British State. There has been deepening of the ‘moral panic’ about those allegedly ‘in’ but not ‘of’ the West. (Jocelyne Cesari, ch4).
Muslim Bureaucratic and parochial leaders
Muslim community leaders have invariably been lay leaders and not, strictly speaking, qualified or qualified religious leaders. Their authority is largely drawn from a cultural capital that overlaps with traditional leadership. They may or may not be literate and their nomination in the bureaucracy and religious hierarchy may depend on their popularity ((Jocelyne Cesari, p62).
Mismatch in the leadership does not augur well for any community for developmental purpose. Also, unqualified parochial leadership often tends to generate more heat than light. In such environment, it is difficult to objectively work towards progressive goals. The governments in western nations ask for capable and coherent leadership.
In western states, the church has played pivotal roles because of qualified religious leaders and capable corporate leaders. In the United

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