The group was divided into two that is those who wanted a military action of invasion to take place and those who advocated for a diplomatic action of eradicating the missiles. After eight days the US president organized a blockade of Cuba and all the military forces in the US were prepared to launch the blockade according to Bostdorff (63). This led to a more tension between the US and the Soviet Union thus intensifying the cold war. Flights of reconnaissance continued to take spy over Cuba and the same time the two nations that is US and the Soviet Union continued to exchange warnings. Finally the Soviet Union President Khrushchev declared the countries withdraw of the missiles from Cuba according to D’Anieri (54). As a result the United States also withdrew its missiles from Turkey which threatened the Soviet Union. After the Cuban Missiles crisis a hotline was installed between the two nations so as to resolve such treats in the future. Kennedy’s Assessment of Handling the Crisis and the Various Kinds of Advice Given Kennedy’s later assessment of the Cuban crisis was that if he has decided to follow the advice of the military force on the issue the US would have failed in handling the Cuban Missile crisis leading to the painful crisis ever. During the various white houses meeting Kennedy held with his advisers, he received various options regarding the solution to the crisis. Kennedy chose his advisers from various areas in order to gain a wide range of proposals according to Siracusa (67). On the first day of the first meeting, everyone in the meeting advocated for bombing of Cuba. However Kennedy and others favored a surgical attack which they considered equal to the scale of attack from the Soviet Union. By the third day of the crisis an advice came from the Secretary General of states who suggested a US surprise attack to Cuba. The Executive Committee (ExComm) itself had six solutions which it advised the president on concerning the Cuban missiles one of them was taking no action which would put the country in danger and make the president look weak. The second was appealing for help from the United Nations but could not work since the then UN chairman of its security councils was from the Soviet Union. The third option was a secret approach to Castro, however this could not work since the weapons were possessed by Soviet Union not Castro. Their other possible advice was an attack on Cuba through this would lead to nuclear war according to Bostdorff (54). The fifth advice was to undertake a surgical air strike which would eliminate all missile sites. However this would have led to third world War, therefore the most favored advice of the ExComm was the blockade which was aggressive enough and gave Khrushchev a second thought on the crisis. Aid to Africa during and After the Cold War During the cold War Donors geographical political objectives weakened the worthiness of threats to determine distribution of aid based on the adoption of the democratic modifications. Particularly during this period, aid to African countries was mostly allocated based on political allegiance as opposed to performance as suggested by Segell (206). As a result this caused abuse and other cases absolute theft of world wide assistance by the fraudulent government official. Strategic alliance was the major driving force in development assistance since the security imperatives controlled the

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