The level of popularity of computer-based instruction in reading may vary, but few will dispute the fact that computers have won a permanent place in most classrooms. The most common concerns of educators now have to do with the effectiveness of computer-based education, and with the appropriateness of the many possible roles computers can play in language arts instruction. The emphasis should not be on using computers to increase reading and writing achievement, but rather on whether teachers use computers for meaningful reading and writing instruction, or are locked into computer-based drill and practice software.For example, Oxford (1993) presents desiderata for Intelligent CALL by formulating nine key elements that are essential, if current thinking on language teaching and learning is to be heeded. Communicative competence must be the cornerstone of ICALL. ALL must provide appropriate language assistance tailored to meet student needs. The ICALL must provide rich language input. The ICALL student model must be based in part on a variety of learning styles. ALL material is most easily learned through associations, which are facilitated by interesting and relevant themes and meaningful language tasks. ALL must involve interactions of many kinds, and these interactions need not be just student-tutor interactions u ICALL must provide useful, appropriate error correction suited to the students changing needs ICALL must involve all relevant language skills and must use each skill to support all other skills. ALL must teach students to become increasingly self-directedThe tutor-tool framework is offered here as a mechanism for addressing a number of concerns in CALL, the most far-reaching being the belief that all CALL is of the tutorial type, characterized by one-to-one interactions where the computer evaluates the student input and then presents the new material accordingly.

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