Subsequently, the various conceptualizations and operationalizations of mindfulness will be compared and contrasted. A final concluding section will summarize what you have learned about the interpersonal concept of mindfulness and how it functions in personal relationships.Research by Rutledge (2005) examines AIDS stigmatizing attitudes among community leaders in Barbados. Rutledge defines stigmatizing attitudes as having two components of perceived threats to physical health (instrumental stigma) and social welfare (symbolic stigma). (186) Further, he asserts that instrumental stigma arises from concern about the physical contagion of HIV causing instrumental stigma while symbolic stigma arises from cultural beliefs that conflate AIDS with homosexuality, prostitution, and drug use. (186-87). These stigmas impair the responses of health care systems and social services and of the individuals employed to deliver services to persons living with HIV and AIDS (PLHA). Therefore, Rutledge concludes that reducing the stigma is essential to improving service delivery to PLHA. This presents him with his research question. What degree of awareness do Barbadian amateur sports coaches have of their stigmatization of PLHA: Are they aware (mindful) of their own attitudes. He conceives of sports coaches as both service providers who might have PLHA on their teams and community leaders influencing attitudes amongst the wider community.Rutledge conceptualizes mindfulness as a three-step model based on principles of mindfulness originating in Eastern philosophy, specifically Buddhism. He describes mindfulness as looking deeply into oneself to cultivate compassion and understanding.The first step in his three-step process of mindfulness involves acknowledging one’s prejudices and fears around.

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