Two management theorists at this point of time came up with the school of thought known as ‘Pre-Classicist’ (Hartman, n.d.).
Charles Babbage, a mathematician, and Robert Owen, an entrepreneur came up with the pre-classicist theory. Robert Owen was the owner of a cotton mill in Scotland. He introduced certain reforms like reducing working hours and not employing children below 10. Charles Babbage was mainly concerned with work specialization. He has suggested profit sharing with employees through shares and providing employee bonuses (Hartman, n.d.).

Henry Fayol founded this theory. This theory was based on numerous principles of management. Management was considered to comprise several training, commanding, coordinating, organizing and planning functions (FAO Corporate Document Repository, n.d.).

Fourteen management principles were developed by Henry Fayol. These were a division of work, unity of command, unity of direction, responsibility and authority, discipline, remuneration of employees, centralization, scalar chain, equality, order, esprit de corps, initiative, the stability of the tenure of employees, keeping general interest above individual interest (Hartman, n.d.).

Chester Barnard was also a believer in administrative theory. He believed that communication flows from bottom to top in an organization. The willingness of the employees to accept the authority depended on whether they understood what was being communicated to them (Hartman, n.d.).

Frederick Taylor is the “father of scientific management”. Frank and Lilian Gilbreth were also believers of this theory. According to this approach, standardization, specialization, efficiency, and simplification can be achieved through planning. Trust and faith between the workers and the management can result in increased productivity. The four principles of management proposed by Frederick W. Taylor were science, scientific training of workers, scientific selection of the worker, cooperation between the management and the labor (FAO Corporate Document Repository, n.d.).

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