With values as part of them, leaders embrace their own acquired values, for instance, in coming up with a decision or even in influencing others. England and Lee (1974 as cited in Russell, 2001, p. 76) have even identified seven arguments to show how values influence the people with leadership. Since values have driven people and their respective behaviours, it is likely that values have influenced leadership through such impelling people. References Illies, J. J., amp. Reiter-Palmon, R. (2008). Responding destructively in leadership situations: The role of personal values and problem construction. Journal of Business Ethics, 82 (1), 251–272. Russell, R. F. (2001). The role of values in servant leadership. Leadership amp. Organization Development Journal, 22 (2), 76–84. Module 3: Perspective on Organisational and Community Values There are a handful of arguments whether organisational values exist. Hodgkinson (1996) as well as Hultman and Gellermann (2002) believe so. The former pointed out that even when people are mainly concerned with knowing the truth, such people are also concerned with values that even when values are different from one individual to another, they try to compromise with one another as a way for them to know the truth (Hodgkinson, 1996, p. 106). The latter describes having organisational values as something that creates a common behaviour and an accepted belief of people united as one group (Hultman amp. Gellermann, 2002, p. 69). However, if people will attempt to argue that such values do not exist since values only reside within an individual, and certainly not amongst groups of people, knowing that one’s values can influence others, and leading others to act the same are one reason for organisational values to exist. When one tries to influence people as much as he can using his believed values, as Confucius and Mahatma Gandhi to name a few, and manages to build social relationships using such values, it is right for Hultman and Gellermann (2002, p. 70) to claim that cultures are then made. References Hodgkinson, C. (1996). Administrative philosophy. Oxford, UK: Elsevier-Pergamon. Hultman, K., amp. Gellermann, B. (2002). Balancing individual and organizational values: Walking the tightrope to success. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/ Pfeiffer. Module 4: Learnings Gained From Leadership Videos The suggested videos pointed out that authentic leadership, aside from wanting to lead, is governed with values, enabling anyone to lead adequately. They imply that people who wanted to lead must not just have the desire to lead but also possess values. As mentioned by the speaker of one of the videos, people who wanted to make sure that their leadership abilities are authentic or, metaphorically speaking, have been professionally effective, must have the ability to know oneself and one’s capabilities to reach potentials, to reason out morally using one’s believed values to create essential outcomes, and to become sensitive to others with the use of true emotions to strengthen relationships (Begley, 2006, p. 570). Although many view leadership as something that influences the emergence of relationships to be more than just the influential person leading a certain group also makes

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