The author of the paper accentuates: “From being conquerors in the Balkans and central Europe in the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Ottomans suffered defeats and loss of territory in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries” (Rafeaq, 2005, p. 230).
Clearly, such failure of the Ottoman Empire to retain power over conquered lands bears the evidence fall from their past glory is becoming evident and the same was also realized in their consequent futility to main integrity within the Middle Eastern region and the provincial powers that we’re searching for the right opportunity to enhance their power used the same for decentralization. While during the early centuries rulers of the Ottoman Empire were trying the change the traditional Middle Eastern society, shift in the balance of power during 18th and 19th century, emergence of Europe provided them with the impetus to adopt the same policies against the Empire: “At times, adaptation demanded decentralization. As we shall see, during the eighteenth century the power of local warlords was greater than the power of the central government to control them” (Gelvin, 2004, p. 34). However, such decentralization and rising to power were used by the provincial rulers not to encourage adaptation of the new elements that Europe came up with. rather they were more focused to reassert their traditional Islamic approaches. Additionally, internal conflict, complex social structure, and increasing corruption among agents of the government contributed considerably in prohibiting the Middle Eastern empires from adapting the technological, economic, social, political and intellectual aspects, propounded by Europe (Rafeaq, 2005).
Describe the various reactions of the people of the Middle East to the Western&nbsp.incursion.&nbsp.

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