Family Characteristics of Order Sphenisciformes-PenguinsJadwiszczak, Piotr. Partial Limb Skeleton Of A ‘Giant Penguin’ Anthropornis From The Eocene Of Antarctic Peninsula. Polish Polar Research 33.3 (2012): 259-274. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 Nov. 2014. Jadwiszczak, 2012 research reports a complete reconstruction of Antarctic penguin limb skeleton. The author uses functional and comparative analyses in understanding the adaptation behaviors and other intriguing features of the giant penguin. The article remained vital in explaining morphological characteristics of certain species of penguins. Jadwiszczak, Piotr, and Sandra D. Chapman. The Earliest Fossil Record Of A Medium-Sized Penguin. Polish Polar Research 32.3 (2011): 269-277. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 Nov. 2014. Jadwiszczak and Sandra, 2011 focuses on reconstructing features of middle-sized penguins using earliest fossil records. Comparative analysis of the fossils reveals the attributable features of middle-sized penguins and their origins. The article was essential in understanding the inherent evolutionary features of middle-sized penguins. Ksepka, Daniel T., et al. Evolution Of The Brain And Sensory Organs In Sphenisciformes: New Data From The Stem Penguin Paraptenodytes Antarcticus. Zoological Journal Of The Linnean Society 166.1 (2012): 202-219. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 Nov. 2014. Ksepka et al., 2012, conducts a study aimed at exploring the inherent neuroanatomical evolution amongst penguins. The authors use generated virtual endocasts in in understanding the anatomical features of extant penguin species. The studies ascertain that there exists retention of various characteristics associated with flight despite evolution. There also exist data reflecting degree of development in neuroanatomical features of penguins. The article is imperative in understanding evolutionary characteristics amongst penguins. Mayr, Gerald, And Thierry Smith. Phylogenetic Affinities And Taxonomy Of The Oligocene Diomedeoididae, And The Basal Divergences Amongst Extant Procellariiform Birds. Zoological Journal Of The Linnean Society 166.4 (2012): 854-875. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 Nov. 2014. Mayr and Smith, 2012 uses diomedeoidid fossils collection in determining features that have phylogenetic significance amongst procellariiform birds. The authors establishes and inherent synonymy in phylogenetic origin between Diomedeoides and Rupelornis. Therefore, the article remained indispensable in revealing phylogenetic connection amongst different species of birds and reflective of penguins’ evolutionary trends. Mayr, Gerald. Metaves, Mirandornithes, Strisores And Other Novelties – A Critical Review Of The Higher-Level Phylogeny Of Neornithine Birds. Journal Of Zoological Systematics amp. Evolutionary Research 49.1 (2011): 58-76. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 Nov. 2014. Mayr, 2011 reviews the higher-level phylogeny characteristics of modern birds with the aim of understanding avian phylogeny. The author employs use of available molecular data in understanding the phylogenetic characteristics of various modern birds. The authors establishes the importance of molecular data in understanding morphological characteristics of birds. The study remained vital in providing detailed information regarding phylogenetic characteristics amongst birds. Nolan, P. M., Dobson, F. S., Nicolaus, M., Karels, T. J., McGraw, K. J., amp. Jouventin, P. Mutual Mate Choice For Colorful Traits In King Penguins. Ethology 116.7 (2010): 635-644. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 Nov. 2014. Nolan et al., 2010 explores mating behaviors of king penguins. The authors uses two color ornaments of king penguins in conducting manipulative field experiments in determining the extent to which ornamentation affected pairing rate amongst the birds. The results indicates that sexual selection amongst the birds shows activity on similar ornament in both sexes. The study was imperious in revealing courtship behaviors of Aptenodytes patagonicus. Wehner, Karey. About Penguins: A Guide For Children. School Library Journal 55.9 (2009): 147-148. Professional Development Collection. Web. 29 Nov. 2014. Wehner, 2009 discusses various inherent characteristics of penguins including physical and behavioral features. The author also discusses the varied geographical features of certain species of penguins. The article remained helpful in discerning characteristics of penguins. Work CitedJadwiszczak, Piotr, and Sandra D. Chapman. The Earliest Fossil Record Of A Medium-Sized Penguin. Polish Polar Research 32.3 (2011): 269-277. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 Nov. 2014.Jadwiszczak, Piotr. Partial Limb Skeleton Of A ‘Giant Penguin’ Anthropornis From The Eocene Of Antarctic Peninsula. Polish Polar Research 33.3 (2012): 259-274. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 Nov. 2014.Ksepka, Daniel T., et al. Evolution Of The Brain And Sensory Organs In Sphenisciformes: New Data From The Stem Penguin Paraptenodytes Antarcticus. Zoological Journal Of The Linnean Society 166.1 (2012): 202-219. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 Nov. 2014.Mayr, Gerald, And Thierry Smith. Phylogenetic Affinities And Taxonomy Of The Oligocene Diomedeoididae, And The Basal Divergences Amongst Extant Procellariiform Birds. Zoological Journal Of The Linnean Society 166.4 (2012): 854-875. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 Nov. 2014.Mayr, Gerald. Metaves, Mirandornithes, Strisores And Other Novelties – A Critical Review Of The Higher-Level Phylogeny Of Neornithine Birds. Journal Of Zoological Systematics amp. Evolutionary Research 49.1 (2011): 58-76. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 Nov. 2014.Nolan, P. M., Dobson, F. S., Nicolaus, M., Karels, T. J., McGraw, K. J., amp. Jouventin, P. Mutual Mate Choice For Colorful Traits In King Penguins. Ethology 116.7 (2010): 635-644. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 Nov. 2014.Wehner, Karey. About Penguins: A Guide For Children. School Library Journal 55.9 (2009): 147-148. Professional Development Collection. Web. 29 Nov. 2014.

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