The technologies help to optimize the extraction of resources by drilling fewer oil wells, which result in a small number of cuttings, drilling fluids and mud, and generated waters. The slim hole, multilateral, and directional drilling minimize the traces of drilling rigs and reduce surface impacts. Technological advancement has led to cutbacks in energy consumption, reduced noise of operations, minimal greenhouse gases, and hazardous air pollutant emission, increased obscurity of facilities, improved protection of water resources, and staff safety (Gedeon n.d). The increase in efficiency of drilling has helped to reduce the amount of drilling mud and cuttings in each barrel in new oil reserves. Currently, one well can achieve the level of production as compared to two oil wells in 1985. The downhole technology of separation can reduce the amount of water generated during production, which constitutes the biggest flow of waste related to the production of oil and gas.The drilling wastes include solid wastes that comprise drill cuttings and fluid mud for drilling. The shale gas and rigid oil extraction are land-intensive because of drilling pads, equipment, movement space for trucks, gas processing, access roads, and transportation premises (Lechtenbohmer, Altmann, Capito 2011). The main air pollutants include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matters as antecedents for regional smog, surface-level ozone whose precursor is nitrogen dioxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)/organic HAPs (US Environmental Protection Agency 2008). There is also the production of greenhouse gases, with fugitive methane comprising a considerable threat to global warming-weighted emissions. CO2 is emitted from process heaters and internal combustion engines, including compressors (Tullow Ghana Limited n.d). Natural gas extraction causes the generation of huge amounts of oilfield wastewater.
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