Enron case has opened the reality of the corruption case, mostly in the form of bribery fraud, among private companies’ executives. And more and more private companies’ executives are being taken to court on the charge of fraud.Corruption has plagued both developing and advanced countries and has become a problem for all countries including the newly established country of Eritrea. It has been embedded in the system. On the domestic level, corruption is canalized bottom-up, at the international level, it is top-down, and among the donor agencies including the World Bank organization, it is also a bottom-up approach.In his opening remark of the World Bank Report on World Bank Continues Leadership in Fight Against Corruption, The World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz said, “There are more than 1 billion people worldwide surviving on $1 a day, and corruption threatens their hopes for a better quality of life and a more promising future… “When we find that scarce development dollars have been wrongly diverted from their intended purpose of benefiting the poor, we have a responsibility to take action. INT’s work helps us to fulfill this obligation to the poor, who are our ultimate clients, by detecting and deterring fraud and corruption, and by working with others across the Bank to mitigate risks in future operations” (2007).Yes, a country resource is limited but why corruption is difficult to be alleviated? There is no fire without a spark and there is no corruption without a cause. According to Shafritz Russell (2000), corruption is the cause of privatization. Though as a communist country, Russia was very successful with its planned economy (Colfer Capistrano 2004) and President Putin agreed that privatization is the cause of the country’s current corruption practices and the Orange Revolution.Sometimes, when things are politicized words change fast because the tongue has no bone.
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