Information Science is basically the discipline which deals with the characteristics and properties of information. It can be called the study of information, the flow of it and methods of managing it for maximum usability. The modern society revolves around information and the management of it. Information Science focusses on gathering and retrieving information and then modifying it or manipulating it accordingly. It is the perfect combination of science and management in today’s world. Information Science incorporates several other fields like physics, mathematics, management, law, commerce, philosophy, communications etc. It can be treated as a pure science as well as an applied one.Data management and data mining methods have been used by humanity since a long time. Information Science made a formal appearance in the 19th century. Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a system which allows punched cards to control looms in 1801 in France. That was the first time patterns were stored as memory and used. The next development in this field was brought about by Charles Babbage. His analytical machine and difference machine was a huge step forward. The printing press discovered by Richard Hoe and the first telegraph message sent by Samuel Morse were other important discoveries in the field of Information Science in this period.
George Boole introduced the world to the basics of Boolean algebra in his book “An Investigation into Laws of Thought”. Boolean Algebra is extensively used for information retrieval and numerous other ways. The first typewriter was discovered by Carlos Glidden and S.W. Soule. The first analogue computer was deviced by 1872 by Lord Kelvin. The telephone was invented by Graham Bell which became one of the most important inventions ever made. The phonograph invented by Thomas Alva Edison was another important discovery in the field of Information Science. Otlet and also Lafontaine took the initial steps towards a universal information society.
There was a great urge to develop methods of data mining and data management during the Second World War. This was the time when people realized the potential of information science. That was when scientists all over the world made an endeavor to make an immense collection of knowledge which could be easily accessed. This effort put in by the governments and the scientists resulted in programs and ventures which led to the development of today’s information industry. Though USA led the world in both in formation and computer sciences this progress was universal in nature. The 20th century also saw the simultaneous development of computers from macro to mini ones along with information science.
Data mining which is basically using computers for statistical reasons developed in the latter half of the 20th century. This was aided by the discoveries made in computer science at the same time. Data management as first conceptualized in 1980 as cards first and then tapes. Sequential processing dominated at first while later the technology moved on to processing based on random access. These methods were applied to develop and maintain huge databases for the first time like the Grateful Med. Today every single industry and, every single discipline is dependent on information science. Information systems are important to every modern organization in today’s world.