Anesthesia was discovered in the year 1946 and before its discovery. experiments on animals were carried out without administering any painkillers. The horrific practice of vivisection was practiced without administering anesthetics or painkilling drugs, even after the discovery of anesthesia. This was a serious breach of humane policies. Although, Britain was considered to be an animal loving country and was termed as a nation of pet – keepers, its reputation was undermined by subsequent animal experiments in British laboratories.England witnessed a number of anti-animal experimentation campaigns, and in the year 1822, Britain enacted an Act to Prevent Cruel and Improper Treatment of Cattle or what was termed as Martin’s Act3, in order to protect animals from being subjected to experiments in the laboratory and other types of cruel treatment. In the beginning, the act covered only the large domestic animals. In 1835 this Act was amended to cover other animals like bulls, dogs, bears and sheep. and prohibited cockfighting and bear – baiting4.The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals or RSPCA had actively participated in all-out efforts to protect animals, established shelters and founded veterinary hospitals for animals. It campaigned for the humane transportation and slaughter of animals. Supporters of medical research demanded that vivisection was to be permitted so that sophisticated drugs could be invented for treating several ailments in humans. The Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 required the yearly renewal of licenses, for carrying out laboratory experiments on animals. It also prohibited the infliction of extreme pain and the duplication of experiments on animals. The government, due to the growing public opposition to animal experimentation, commissioned the First Royal Commission.

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