Organization Public Health Slp Colon Cancer – Introduction For this study, historical facts of individuals who are diagnosed with colon cancer, evolution, and current status of the disease will be examined. Eventually, problems of colon cancer related to its public health significance will be discussed.
Historical Facts and Current Status of Individuals with Colon Cancer
Even though the trend of death rates related to colon and rectum cancer has been gradually declining between the years 1945 to 2006, the number of American people who are suffering from colon cancer remains high. (Jemal et al., 2007. Center for Disease and Prevention, 2006) In fact, colon cancer ranks the third highest in cancer mortality among the black and white Americans. (NCI, 2008)
The estimated 2007 US colon cancer patient is roughly 112,340 men and 55,290 women. (American Cancer Society, 2007) In general, more 28,180 women have died from colon cancer as compared to 26,000 men. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006) On the contrary, more men with 26,991 have died from the disease as compared to women with 26,669 back in 2004. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004) In general, the survival rate of the American White and African American is 66% and 54% respectively. (National Cancer Institute, 2006)
Evolution and Causes of Colon Cancer
A person’s age, family history, personal medical history, diet, polyps or non-cancerous cells, ulcerative colitis, and lifestyle such as excessive smoking and alcohol consumption are the common risk factors related to the development of colon cancer. (NIH Senior Health, 2007. Zeller et al., 2006. Giovannucci &amp. Brigham, 2001. Halvorsen et al., 1999)
Lifestyle and diet significantly triggers the possibility of developing colon cancer. In line with this matter, a past study shows that there is a significant relationship between the reduction of folate intake and the increase in alcohol consumption with the increase risk for colon cancer. (Giovannucci et al., 1995) This is because of the fact that folate acts as the regulator of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene expression through the DNA methylation. Aside from allowing causing a free radical damage to the colon cells, excessive alcohol consumption reduces the folate that is store in the human body. (Wheeler, 2003) When colon cancer is detected, colorectal cancer care is treated with the use of chemotherapy, surgery or radiation therapy. (Dominitz et al., 1998)
Health Care Policy on Colon Cancer
To minimize the number of death, there is a need for health care workers to assess the risk factors such as age in order to provide the patients with necessary treatment and care. (Seifeldin &amp. Hantsch, 1999)
Problems of Colon Cancer Related to its Public Health
The problem with colon cancer is the fact that it is difficult to discover the disease during its early stages due to the lack of symptoms suggesting the presence of the cancer. (Zeller, Lynm, &amp. Glass, 2006) When colon cancer remains undetected until the advance stages, cancer cells would spread to other sensitive internal organs.
More Americans are dying from colon cancer since 2004. For this reason, there is a need for health care professionals to teach the people some preventive ways to avoid the disease.
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American Cancer Society. (2007). Retrieved July 24, 2008, from Cancer Statistics 2007 Presentation:
Center for Disease and Prevention. (2006). Retrieved July 24, 2008, from US Mortality Public Use Data Tapes 1960 – 2003, US Mortality Volumes 1930 – 1959, National Center for Health Statistics:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006). National Center for Health Statistics: US Mortality Public Use Data Tapes, 1969 to 2004. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004). Retrieved July 24, 2008, from Statistics: Colorectal (Colon) Cancer:
Dominitz, J., Samsa, G., Landsman, P., &amp. Provenzale, D. (1998). Race, Treatment, and Survival among Colorectal Carcinoma Patients in an Equal-access Medical System. Cancer , 82:2312 – 2320.
Giovannucci, E., &amp. Brigham, E. (2001). An Updated Review of the Epidemiological Evidence that Cigarette Smoking Increases Risk of Colorectal Cancer. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkets &amp. Prevention , 10(7):725 – 731.
Giovannucci, E., Rimm, E., Ascherio, A., et al. (1995). Alcohol, Low-methionine, Low-folate Diets and Risk of Colon Cancer in Men. National Cancer Institute , 97:265 – 273.
Halvorsen, B., Kase, B. F., Prydz, K., Garagozlian, s., Andresen, M. S., &amp. Kolset, S. O. (1999). Sulphation of Lithocholic Acid in the Colon-carcinoma Cell Line CaCo-2. Biochem , 343:533 – 539.
Jemal, A., Siegel, R., Ward, E., Murray, T., Xu, J., &amp. Thun, M. J. (2007). Cancer Statistics, 2007. CA:A Cancer Journal for Clinicians , 57(1):43 – 66.
National Cancer Institute. (2006). Retrieved July 24, 2008, from Surveillance, Epidemiology and En Results Program, 1975 – 2003:
NCI. (2008). Retrieved July 24, 2008, from United States Cancer Statistics: Fast Stats, Colon and Rectum Mortality, 1969-1999:
NIH Senior Health. (2007, April 30). Retrieved July 24, 2008, from Colorectal Cancer: Causes and Risk Factors:
Seifeldin, R., &amp. Hantsch, J. (1999). The economic burden associated with colon cancer in the United States. Clinical Therapeutics , 21(8):1370 – 1379.
Wheeler, K. (2003, April 24). ejournal. Retrieved July 24, 2008, from 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Codon 677 and 1298 Polymorphisms and Colon Cancer in African Americans and Whites :
Zeller, J. L., Lynm, C., &amp. Glass, R. M. (2006). Colon Cancer. The Journal of the American Medical Association , 296(12):1552.

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