To understand the causes of the client’s social phobias and fixations, one should consider theoretical frameworks related to lifespan development and typical changes and transformations occurring during different periods of an individual’s life. The two periods to consider in this case study are adolescence generally defined by Feldman (2010) as the period between 12 and 20 and early adulthood lasting form 20 to 40 years. Therefore, the client has recently entered the stage of early adulthood, and, according to numerous researchers, certain developmental issues might be related to the transition from adolescence to the current stage. Considering the development pattern for Nora and the fact that there are no inherent genetic mental issues or physiological injuries that could hinder her development, it is reasonable to address nurture-based theories of development in order to draw parallels between the current state and the environmental effect produced on the client during her most sensitive development period. Behaviorism, social cognitive approach and Vygotsky’s theory emphasize the role of social environment in the formation of certain psychological, cognitive and emotional traits in the individual, stressing importance of interaction with family, peers and instructors. Particularly, importance of the family context during adolescence has been highlighted for a number of positive outcomes, including well-being, emotion regulation, academic achievement, and autonomy.
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