8 psychosocial devDefine and differentiate between fine motor skills and gross motor skills. Motor skills have to do with the physical development of an individual.Fine motor skills are physical abilities that require the use of fine muscles, specifically of the hands and fingers. These are in action when one kneads, draws, writes, sews, etc., activities that involve eye-hand coordination. Gross motor skills require the use of larger muscles like the limbs. These large muscles are in use when one jumps, runs, kicks a ball, swings on monkey bars, swims, etc. In general, however, most skills incorporate precise movements of both larger and smaller muscle groups working in harmony. (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2007). Observations of physical development reveal that growth is cephalocaudal (it proceeds from head to tail) and proximodistal (it proceeds from the center of the body outward) and that gross motor movements are developed before fine motor movements. Control of head and arm muscles is achieved before control of leg muscles. Similarly, children are able to control the muscles of their arms before they can control the fine muscles in their hands that are needed for tasks such as writing and cutting with scissors. (Brewer, 2001, p13). This explains why a human first masters balancing his head and back before learning to stand and walk, and why younger children move their arms clumsily when attempting to paint until they master the skill of holding a brush or a pen properly and exerting enough pressure to write some strokes.Identify and describe Eriksons initiative vs. guilt The Initiative vs. Guilt stage of Erikson’s Psychosocial development usually happens during the preschool years of ages 3-6. At this age, the basic task is to gain competence and initiative. The child has a boundless supply of energy which permits him to learn all kinds of activities and ideas quickly and avidly. In discovering that he is capable of doing many things, he gets to attempt a lot of tasks that he may not be ready for. In the event that he fails in such tasks, he may become overwhelmed by resignation, guilt and anxiety. The preschool age is characterized by enthusiasm at proving one’s competencies by initiating or volunteering for tasks. The child is out to pursue evidences that he or she is already a big boy or girl and no longer a helpless baby. However, the reality that his youth brings many limitations to his abilities that need more time and practice to be honed, usually sets in and may cause him frustration and guilt at failing. If he is not able to deal with the frustration properly, then he may defer from taking initiative and let others decide things for him. Worse, he may question his capabilities and affect his self-esteem. The best way to help the child at this age is to encourage him to play constructively and entrust him with chores that he can be efficient at. This way, the conflict between initiative and guilt may be resolved by the establishment of a constructive moral sense, which may be very satisfying for him. If the conflict remains unresolved, in adult life, the individual may be inhibited or impotent (socially as well as sexually), or he may be over-react by compulsive showing off. (Brewer, 2001)References:Brewer, J.A. (2001) Introduction to Early Childhood Education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Corey, G. (2005) Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 7th ed. Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning Inc.psychomotor learning. (2007). Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2007 Ultimate Reference Suite . Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica.

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