The independent variable or the value being manipulated is the frustrations status, whereas the dependent variable or the observed result is the horn honking responses. The drivers causing frustration (“frustration”) wore a plaid sports jacket and white shirt while driving the high-status car (hardtop), and an old khaki jacket while driving the low-status car (old station wagon and old sedan). At the end of each trial, the subjects were observed whether they had honked once, twice, or not at all. The latency of each honk and estimated length were recorded and double-checked against tape recordings.
Manipulation checks were not used for the independent variable since there was no chance for the subjects and the researchers to interact. However, there was a questionnaire experiment conducted to verify the results between actual and predicted behavior. The results showed that the behavior reported in the questionnaire reflected what was observed in the field.
The study employed probability sampling or representative samples. Subjects were selected to be representative of the population. Specifically, random sampling was utilized. This means that each driver in the population of interest has an equal likelihood of selection. There were 82 drivers observed. They are motorists taking some intersections in California. External validity is very well manipulated since the subjects are chosen and observed in real-life settings.
Among the 82 subjects, 26 were women and 56 were men. Their sex and estimated age were also noted. In addition, the year, make and model of each subject’s car were monitored. The experiment was conducted in six intersections in Palo Alto and Menio Park, California.
A luxury car (1996 Chrysler Crown Imperial hardtop) was used as the high-status car. Two low-status cars ( a rusty 1954 Ford station wagon and an unobtrusive gray Rambler sedan) were alternately utilized. The driver of the experimental car was instructed to arrive at an intersection just as the traffic light was turning red.

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