Government and urban authorities formulate programs aimed at improving the urban environment and promoting given economic and social goals. Since ancient times, as depicted by the ruins of ancient cities, urban planning has been practiced with well-organized streets, water and sewage systems, and walls. For example, during the Renaissance, European city areas were carefully and scientifically planned to allow movement of the populace, and the city walls were strongly fortified for security reasons (Grogan Proscio, 2001).Modern urban planning and reconstruction programs were largely shaped by the events of the Industrial Revolution, especially the disorder and squalor of the slums. These events challenged governments and urban planners to come up with elaborate city plans that include water, sewage, transport systems, and other amenities. For example, during this period, people like William Penn, in founding the City of Philadelphia, developed the standard gridiron plan that involved laying out of streets and plots of land adaptable to rapid change in land use (Taylor, 2009).A new concept to urban planning and designing of transport systems is embracing the idea of sustainable development and sustainability. This concept involves adopting sustainable urban development that improves the long-term social and ecological health of cities and towns by using sustainable city structures and designs. These include compact and efficient land use, reduced automobile use but with better access, less pollution and waste, restoration of natural systems, better housing and efficient use of resources, and a healthy and sustainable socio-economic environment (Wheeler, 2004). These developments require significant support from political and government structures, as they affect many areas and institutions. Thus, they are implemented in a collaborative and communicative manner that encompasses strategic programming, decision making, and monitoring, to enhance the accomplishment of the specific goals.

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