Some of these differences can be accounted for by differences in cultural outlook, and others by spending differences.One could argue that a strict life expectancy comparison skews the data and that other factors, such as genetics, poverty, public health and other practices can make a significant difference. Although each country has plusses and minuses in such measures as childhood mortality, one can conclude that all three countries have a relatively high standard of health care.Thus in this three-country survey, Canada is the “efficiency champ,” with a slightly lower per-capita spending for essentially the same life span. Critics with a statistical bent would argue that this is unfair, as the average age of Canadians is lower than the other two countries, and that health care spending goes up as people age. Almost any conclusion is difficult to defend, except one: all are champs when compared to the US, which has a similar lifespan but per-capita spending that is much higher at $6,412, or nearly double these three fairly developed countries. With this perspective, it seems clear that all three countries are relatively efficient at delivering fairly high-quality health care. All three have had a major increase in the percentage of GDP that they spend on health care. although Germany and France have had a modest increase over the past decade, Canada’s increase has been more precipitous. The latter’s climb may be attributable to the perceived need to reduce waiting times and increase service levels in Canada’s single-payer system.Germany has more private insurance than the other two countries, although all three have a universal health care plan. In Germany’s case, 40% of the population is covered at least partially by some form of private insurance, while 60% are covered through the OAK (Allgemeine ortliche Krankenversicherung) (Emerson) (ESS-Europe). The primary benefits offered by German privateinsurers are ‘supplemental’ health benefits, such as better private hospitals, single rooms, and some additional care for elders.

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