The balance of power no longer resided with the economically or geographically powerful but with those states which had dominant military power. The United States of America, for example, emerged as one of the most powerful countries after WWII which engaged in armed conflicts and established military bases in countries like South Korea, Japan, Kuwait, Philippines, Iraq and now Afghanistan. The American dominance, however, was replaced by China when the Chinese opened its doors to the international markets. Through international trade, China today has established strategic presence in the global schema, and inevitably tipped the balance of power (Richardson 2004). The tug of war in the relationship between China and the US have characterized other nations’ international relations too such as India and Pakistan, and North and South Korea. And through them emerged individual states’ security threats – each one strategizing and establishing their own power the other. This proliferation of power struggle though was not a new concept have facilitated a new type of war – disputes at the local political level in which individuals responded to security threats according to their own perception. One example was the Tiananmen Square outrage (Chapman 2001). Moreover, the new focus in the post-Cold War era was on changing the international relations among the political community, the moral dimensions as well as perspectives on human nature. The world was now the Cosmopolis or universal community of humankind, which needed to follow policies with moral purpose. These ideas gave rise to the transformations of the role of the Christian church, the Muslim ulemas, and other religious organizations in political governance.

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