Alcohol and tobacco are the most commonly used drugs in many nations. The use of alcohol is often a socially accepted practice that is culturally well accepted. However, the use of alcohol has been associated with a range of social, physical and psychological factors that have an adverse impact on those who consume alcohol and their families. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is associated with heavy alcohol consumption by mothers during pregnancy and this alcohol consumption damages the child. Physical malformations in Children with FAS include short eye openings, flattened middle face, thin upper lip and a small jaw as well as a flat nasal bridge and minor ear anomalies (Block, 2000, pp. 20 – 30) and (Kodituwakku, 2007, pp. 193 – 199). In addition to the indications of growth retardation, evidence of central nervous system abnormalities and heart and skeletal defects has also been noticed in children who have been exposed to alcohol prior to birth. Pre – school children with FAS exhibited verbal, perceptual and fine or gross motor deficits as well as intellectual deficits. These children are hyperactive, distractive, impulsive and unresponsive to verbal caution as well as being fond of receiving a lot of attention. Physical and mental damage is likely to be more severe with higher levels of alcohol consumption and pregnant women in the United States are advised to abstain from alcohol, while those in the United Kingdom are often told not to consume more than one drink a day (Room, 2005, pp. 1999). However, the worldwide incidence of FAS has been estimated to be in the range of about 2 per thousand births (Itthagarun, 2007, pp. e20).
Although children with FAS have a handicap as compared to normal children, they have to be taught as best as possible to live in the real world with others. .