The fundamental challenge of Web page development is that while it is easy to create a Web page, it is more difficult to create an attractive and exciting one.
HTML, the markup language that describes the appearance of a page, is easy to learn, and requires no background in programming. HTML has undergone several revisions in order to meet the expanding needs of Web page authors. However, there are limits to what can be achieved inside HTML. The Java programming language was introduced to dramatically extend the Web developer’s set of tools, but is still more complex than HTML. Java is very easy to learn. however, like most programming languages, it isn’t easy to master. In this context more and more scripting languages surfaced around the WWW. Some of the most popular scripting languages that will be discuss in this report are: JavaScript, CSS, XML, XHTML, and PHP. This report will also discuss XSL as emerging technologies.
JavaScript offers the Web page author a new level of sophistication without requiring him to become a programmer. JavaScript brings dynamic and powerful capabilities to Web pages, yet JavaScript is no more difficult to learn than HTML. JavaScript can be used to solve common problems, such as validating forms input, and can also be used to create dramatic and visually appealing content, which would be impossible with HTML.
The Pros
-JavaScript is an object-based scripting programming language based on the concept of prototypes, like Visual Basic and C.
-JavaScript has a C-like syntax so if a programmer already know C, which is the introductory computer language for beginners in most cases, if would be very easy to learn JavaScript.
-JavaScript extends the capabilities of an HTML web page.
-JavaScipt can be used to write functions that are embedded in an HTML pages, which interacts with the Document Object Model (DOM) of the page. DOM is an API that represents an XML document as a tree. Each node of the tree represents a piece of the XML document.
Through these interactions, tasks that are not possible in static HTML can be performed such as opening a new window, checking input values, changing images as the mouse cursor moves over, and many other web interactions.
-Client side input validation, computation and processing through JavaScript can minimise the load on the web server’s processing and thus affects the overall performance of the website.
The Cons
-Interfaces in various browsers differ and do not always match the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) DOM standards and different browsers expose different objects and methods to the script. This means that JavaScript functions will not run in other browsers different from where the script is written. The most probable and necessary solution is to write different variants of a JavaScript function for the various browsers, which in this case very time consuming. Another solution is to extend the capability of the browser with plug-ins, Java applets, or other external applications. These programs may or may not make their objects available to JavaScript.
-Unlike a full pledge language like Java and C, debugging (finding and tracking errors) in JavaScript is exremely difficult since errors in JavaScript only appear in run-time, and since JavaScript is interpreted by the web browser as the page is viewed. In this case, it is common to spend a great deal of time debugging the code.
Cascading Stylesheets (CSS)
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is used to define many aspects of web page presentation. Is is designed to separate presentation to structure, as writen in HTML or other similar markup language. Styles in a CSS are nomarlly stored in style sheets externally. These

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