The Puerto Ricans Americans College Puerto Ricans are a&nbsp.mixture&nbsp.of a few races Taino Indians, African Americans and White. The descendants of the White&nbsp.race&nbsp.have colored eyes, and those with dark eyes descended from the African Race. The Puerto Ricans forms quite a significant number of the Hispanic Population in the United States where they have contributed to the development, defense and&nbsp.prosperity&nbsp.of the country since 1898. The culture of Puerto Rican population&nbsp.is influenced&nbsp.by Puerto Rico’s Afro-Spanish history. Its family unit and&nbsp.community&nbsp.dynamics have a strong Spanish influence. History of immigration The history of Puerto Ricans in the United States began in 1898 as a result of the Spanish-American War.&nbsp.Puerto Ricans migrated into the US in search for better economic conditions and&nbsp.employment.&nbsp.This&nbsp.was made&nbsp.possible by the US manufacturing companies which needed laborers during wartime. Puerto Rican migrants to the US first settled in New York City and&nbsp.later&nbsp.other cities like Chicago, Philadepia, Boston, Cleveland, Miami and Tampa&nbsp.found&nbsp.jobs in service and&nbsp.industry&nbsp.sector. Women found work from textile industry as. it was leading&nbsp.form&nbsp.of&nbsp.employment&nbsp.while men in&nbsp.urban&nbsp.Cities worked in the service industry. Men found jobs in steel manufacturing, shipping, auto assembly, meat packing, and other industries. Dressing traditionally in Puerto Rico is the same to other Caribbean people in the Islands. Men wear baggy pantaloons, which are trousers and loose cotton shirts known as a Guayaberra. For celebrations, women wear colorful dresses. The traditions and beliefs of Puerto Rican&nbsp.population&nbsp.are affected&nbsp.by Puerto Rico’s Afro-Spanish history. Puerto Rican culture and customs go hand –in-hand with the Catholic religious traditions of Spaniards and the pagan beliefs of the West African slaves. Most Puerto Ricans are&nbsp.staunch&nbsp.Roman Catholics they&nbsp.observe&nbsp.traditional&nbsp.church&nbsp.liturgy, rituals, and traditions. Puerto Rican people love music and to&nbsp.dance&nbsp.as they are&nbsp.popular&nbsp.for throwing vast and&nbsp.elaborate&nbsp.parties with music and dancing to celebrate festive events. Puerto Rican music is polyrhythmic, having a combination of intricate and complex African percussion with melodic Spanish beats. The Puerto Ricans language is Castillian Spanish, derived from ancient Latin. The distinct difference between Spain Spanish and Puerto Rico Spanish is&nbsp.pronunciation. Puerto Rican family unit and their&nbsp.community&nbsp.have&nbsp.enormous Spanish influence. This tends to&nbsp.show&nbsp.the intensely patriarchal social organization of Euro, Spanish culture. Husbands and men are heads of their households and&nbsp.are crowned&nbsp.to be&nbsp.community leaders.&nbsp.Male children,&nbsp.who&nbsp.are&nbsp.older, are&nbsp.expected&nbsp.to be responsible for&nbsp.their younger siblings. Women&nbsp.get&nbsp.responsible for the everyday running of their homes. Both the Puerto Ricans, both men and women care for their children seriously and have pivotal roles in child upbringing. children&nbsp.are expected&nbsp.to show respect towards parents, elders and older siblings. Girls&nbsp.are raised&nbsp.to be quiet and&nbsp.submissive, and boys&nbsp.are meant&nbsp.to be more assertive. The family unit is&nbsp.extensive. its&nbsp.system&nbsp.is based&nbsp.on the Spanish Compadrazco which refers to co-parenting which means many members of the not only parents and siblings&nbsp.are taken&nbsp.to be part of the extended family. Challenges and accomplishments As Puerto Ricans&nbsp.are incorporated&nbsp.into the mainstream of the American culture, most of the younger generations moved away from Eastern&nbsp.urban&nbsp.cities and New York City, taking well-paying&nbsp.white-collar&nbsp.and professional jobs and most of them have acquired US citizenship, which freed them from immigration barriers with the enactment of the Jones -Sharof Act. English started to be taught to many elementary school children in the Puerto Rican public schools, although Spanish still remains the main language on the Puerto Rico Island. Bilingualism is widespread among urbanized, young and professional Puerto Ricans. The long exposure of Puerto Ricans to the American society, language, and culture has generated an&nbsp.exclusive&nbsp.slang. This slang&nbsp.is&nbsp.usually&nbsp.known&nbsp.to most Puerto Ricans as Spanglish. Puerto Ricans places importance on the education of the island young people. the American public education system is&nbsp.compulsory.&nbsp.Puerto Ricans traditionally is&nbsp.against&nbsp.divorce and giving birth out of wedlock.&nbsp.As young people increasingly move into mainstream American culture, traditions and beliefs seem to be fading. Contributions to the American culture Puerto Ricans has led to development of American culture and economy through interactions,&nbsp.work&nbsp.and business activities. They have also been involved in civic participation. There are many ways in which Puerto Ricans have contributed to&nbsp.better&nbsp.policies. This is through protests, campaign contributions, lobbying, and voting. References Alvarez, M. (1992). Puerto Rican Children on the Mainland: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. New York: Garland Pub. Fitzpatrick, K. Joseph, P. (1987). Puerto Rican Americans: The Meaning of Migration to the Mainland. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Hauberg, Clifford A. (1975). Puerto Rico and the Puerto Ricans. New York: Twayne. Perez, M. &amp. Andres, I. (1996). Speaking with the Dead: Development of Afro-Latin Religion among Puerto Ricans in the United States: A Study into Inter-penetration of Civilizations in the New World. New York: AMS Press. Urciuoli &amp. Bonnei (1996). Exposing Prejudice: Puerto Rican Experiences of Language, Race, and Class. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Van Middeldyk, R.&nbsp.(2011). The history of Puerto Rico: from the Spanish discovery to the American occupation. D.Appleton and company. Indiana University

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