The sludge tested as lead-poisoning fix research study was carried out by Baltimore scientists who wanted to find out whether fertilizer made from human and industrial wastes would be effective in protecting children from lead poisoning in black neighborhoods. They wanted to testify this tenet would be applicable in the real life situation. The study concluded that phosphate and iron that were present in the soil had the ability to trap harmful metals, lead included, causing the combination to pass safely through a child’s body if ingested (Heilprin and Vineys). The infamous Tuskegee syphilis study was set up in Alabama to study the progress of untreated syphilis amongst the participants. They were mainly concentrating on the poor black men who were told that they were being offered free government healthcare. The study, which began in 1932, enrolled more than 600 impoverished African-Americans with 400 out of these having previous contractions of the disease and the other 200 without the disease. By the end of the study, more controversy rather than praise dogged this study. At the end of it all, only 74 of the test subjects had survived. 40 of the wives of those amongst the 400 infected participants had contracted the disease with 19 children being born with congenital syphilis (Reverby 7-8). 2. The two studies have various similarities. First, they were conducted amongst the poor in the society. The sludge experiment targeted families from poor neighborhoods and amongst the low-income earners. This meant that they could be as unethical as they wanted and get away with it. They could use freebies to entice them and this would achieve their goal without ever having to disclose their main intention. The poor men in the Tuskegee experiment were drawn from the poor in the society with each individual given a different version of what they were expecting from the study (Reverby 9). The second similarity is the fact that they were all given some form of enticement which was to act as a bait to prevent them from engaging in anything else. The sludge experiments gave them new lawns and free food coupons that were to encourage them to participate (Heilprin and Vineys). For the Tuskegee experiment, the poor African-Americans were told that they were receiving free federal care for the cure of bad blood. a code name used by the locals to describe several illnesses such as syphilis, anemia and other such diseases. The third similarity was the fact that the side effects of each experiment were kept in secrecy from the participants (Reverby 9). Instead of being told the truth, they were given hideous excuses that were never justified or even elaborated. Instead of being told that the sludge could have adverse effects on their children if ingested, they told them that their lawns would be green and that their children would have a place to play (Heilprin and Vineys). The Tuskegee participants were told that they were receiving free medication for their disease despite being denied a chance to seek alternative medicine when penicillin was validated as a possible cure for the disease (Reverby 12). The fourth similarity is the fact that racial discrimination is very much pronounced in both studies. They both chose black poor neighborhoods amongst whom free services could be used to entice them to participate rather than get any form of consent from them willingly they were using the fact that these were poor families to try out the effects of each of their studies. The other similarity is the fact that unethical means of attaining the enrollment of participants were used (Reverby 93). They were denied a chance to participate in the signing of legal documents that would detail

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