Each ethnic group is always aspiring to have one of their members taking charge of the nation. This situation has made the majority of ethnic population retain leadership in many democratic nations. It is all about the numbers.In some nations, like those in the Middle East, religion has penetrated and dominated the political developments and decisions. In fact, the state laws are always based on the religious doctrines and practices. In such a nation, those who belong to a different faith are always treated as the minority, who must strictly adhere to the set of religious laws.In most occasions, the oppressed minority have usually tried to overcome the persecutions by forming groups and political parties through which they can air their grievances. The majority, on the other hand, have taken such moves as insubordinations and threats to their dominance. This is the picture of ethnic and religious conflicts. It is, however, important to mention from the onset that not all multi-ethnic nations will experience violent conflicts from the various ethnic and religious groups. a few nations have been peaceful (Tanya, 12).Ethnic conflict has been described as a battle between groups that differ in cultural, religious and other ideological issues. This paper shall, in general, review the situation and cases of ethnic and religious conflicts in a few Southeast Asian nations to draw the true picture of the region. Thereafter, the states of India and Sri Lanka shall be distinctively discussed in an attempt to describe the genesis and nature of ethnicity and religious dissonance.In the recent past and present, ethnic conflict has been the leading cause of collective war in most parts of the world, Southeast Asia included. In Southeast Asia, ethnicity has been tightly merged with religion, making the situation a very complex puzzle.

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